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  1. Lock nerd 
    #1
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    Mattlock's Car Details
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    Hi guys i'm as mad on locks as you are about BM's! , I'm here to learn about the diagnostics of BM's, though in my regular job a domestic lockie i'm looking to learn about car locks. Any advice you can give me would be welcome.
     
     

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    xXxStKxXx's Car Details
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    Hi Matt,Welcome to Bimmerforums.co.uk.........
     
     

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    hi matt welcome to the forum, shall i give you my keys now
     
     

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    http://www.keypit.co.uk/autolocksmith/bmw.html

    This may tell you what you want to know.
     
     

  7.  
    #5
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    TheEnd's Car Details
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    Copy and paste coming up!

    Diagnostics is the in-built self checking facility (OBD - On Board Diagnostics) that has been built into ECUs since the '80's. The original systems were very simple, for example illuminating a warning lamp if a sensor was detected as an open or short circuit. The light, often known as the MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) or "Check engine" light would require the driver to take the vehicle to an authorised service station which could interrogate the ECU further as to the trigger of the MIL. Many early ECUs would display a Fault Code by flashing either the MIL indicator, or sometimes an inbuilt warning lamp on the ECU (as seen on early Honda vehicles, for example), or outputting a pulsed signal to a Diagnostic connector, which could be read by either a test lamp, or a purpose made code reader. These pulsed signals would relate to numbers, which would then be cross referenced in a handbook to find the meaning. The next major phase in Diagnostic technology was introduced due to legislation from CARB (California Air Resources Board) in 1988, which required all new vehicles sold in California to have an On Board Diagnostic System. Due to the roll-out of this technology for the US market, many Global manufacturers introduced this to all other non US market vehicles. At this time, there were no standards set for data protocols, or connection types, so codes would often need to be read by the Manufacturer's Diagnostic tools, or expensive Multi-platform Diagnostic tools which were available to Service centres that could deal with many different makes. See also our Scan Tools page.

    In 1994, the CARB released the specifications for OBD II, in association with recommendations from the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) which required vehicles to fulfill a number of criteria, such as -

    A standardised 16 Pin OBD II connector, situated within reach of the driver's seat.
    A "Check engine" light.
    Pre- and Post-Catalytic converter Lambda sensors, to monitor the efficiency of the Catalytic converter.
    A standardised communication protocol, which would related to DTCs (Diagnostic Trouble Codes) of a mostly standard format.
    The standardisation of the plug to the OBD II (SAE J1962) and of communication protocols allowed electronics manufacturers to develop low cost Fault code readers that could read the OBD II DTCs. Note that the OBD II codes were limited in their coverage, usually only concerned with emission control, so they will not be able to diagnose errors in ABS braking or Airbag/SRS systems. In 2001, the EOBD - European On Board Diagnostics protocol was introduced into European Petrol engined vehicles. Whilst this is based on the OBD II standards in the US, it is important to note that European petrol engined vehicles before 2001 may or may not communicate with the OBD2 type code readers. Many of these pre '01 ECUs were identical to the US full OBDII versions, due to the lack of active legislation, they might not have the J1962 OBDII 16 pin connector, or an active "Check Engine" MIL. Remember to check with your tool supplier to see if your vehicle is supported BEFORE you buy!



    Above you can see a schematic for the J1962 connector, and although protocols for communication were standardised, there were more than one allowed. Current communication protocols are -

    SAE J1850 PWM - Pulse Width Modulation, as used by Ford
    SAE J1850 VPW - Variable Pulse Width, as used by General Motors
    ISO 9141-2 - Used in most European and Asian market cars, often referred to as ISO
    ISO 14230 - Also known as KWP2000 (KeyWord Protocol)
    ISO 15765 CAN - Controller Area Network. This latest protocol is now part of US regulations, and is used by most manufacturers for Diagnostic and data-bus communication
    The CAN bus system employed in modern vehicles acts in a similar way to a Radio channel. The CAN bus connects all modules, which are free to receive and broadcast data packets, which will be listened to and acted upon by anything concerned. CAN speeds can reach up to 1 Mbit/s, with devices transmitting information based on a priority ranking system. For more information on what Scan Tools are available for your car, check out our Scan Tools page.
    Scan Tools and Techniques
    A Scan Tool is any device which can check and retrieve fault codes. They will often come in varying degrees of technology, from a test lamp in a large official looking case to complete interfaces supplied to Authorised Service Stations which can communicate with all electronic components. Let's start by dividing these into Categories.

    OBD Flash code readers - The simplest type will active a diagnosis communication mode, which will cause a light to flash. This light can be inside the ECU, be part of the code reader, or maybe the MIL. Two flashes and a pause would indicate 2, 6 flashes and a pause would indicate 6. When this code numbers are collected, they are cross referenced in a handbook to reveal the cause of the error, which can then be rectified. As these are ECU based, these codes will relate directly to the engine only, and what the engine ECU can detect. These types of devices are often very specific, not only to Manufacturer or Model, but sometimes down to individual groups within a Model type.
    OBD II and ELM Devices - With the introduction of various OBD II diagnostic standards, Scan tool manufacturers were able to produce one device which will be able to connect to OBD II compliant vehicles and rear standardised codes. As mentioned on our Diagnostics page, OBD II did have various protocols, such as VPW, ISO and PWM but multi-protocol devices are available to cover them all. The most famous of these are the ELM series of devices, using the ELM chipsets in a variety of devices, from complete units to Development kits. The latest version is the ELM327 chip, which, when implemented correctly, will allow OBD diagnostics on ISO, VPW, PWM, KWP and CAN standards. Details on the OBD Codes can be found at OBD Codes.
    Manufacturer Specific Code Readers - These Devices work on far deeper level compared to OBD II devices. The Manufacturer Specific tools are able to carry out full diagnostics on many models, and provide a coverage second only to the manufacturer. Examples of these are Vag-Com and, pictured above, Peake. As well as the OBD II DTCs, these will also be able to interpret Manufacturer specific codes generated in OBD diagnostics, and often communicate with all other diagnostic enabled devices such as ABS systems and Body electronic modules. They are usually the most powerful class of diagnostic devices, second only to OEM Tools, but are held back by Single Brand usage.
    Multi Platform Diagnostics - Multi Platform diagnostic tools act like a collection of the above-mentioned Manufacturer Specific Tools. These are made available to Service stations to provide powerful diagnostics to many different Manufacturer's vehicles. Depth of coverage can vary significantly between supported Manufacturers, with a few reaching Manufacturer Specific levels on some brands, but only OBD II level on others. These tools are often more expensive, but overall, can represent a saving compared to the cost of numerous Specific Hi-Level devices. Examples of 3rd party Multi-Platform devices are Launch, and Autodiagnos, and OEM manufacturers such as Bosch producing the Bosch KTS range.
    OEM Scan Tools - The Highest level of communication is naturally the OEM equipment. Able to interface with new vehicles as they are released, and to carry out tasks such as coding and programming of replacement modules. Examples of OEM tools are BMW's Group Tester 1 (GT1), Porsche's PIWIS (Based on a Bosch KTS platform), and Mercedes Benz' Compact STAR
    Diagnostic Techniques
    So now you know how dedicated Diagnostic tools work, but that isn't the complete solution. Code readers are not a magic bullet that will find and fix all problems, and true Fault finding techniques are used. It is best to always follow a plan, and gather as much information on the components to either locate yourself, or even if you ask on a technical forum. An example of a routine to carry out is-

    Identify the symptoms - Gather as much information of all problems, What happened, under what conditions, is the fault recent, intermittent, continuous? Seemingly unconnected information such as the time of the faults, or the days could hold vital clues. Imagine if a vehicle would cut out only on a Tuesday morning. After discussing what happens on Tuesdays you discover the owner always visits one shop that day, which happens to be 6am via country lanes. It later turns out that Main beams used for long periods on this day only produce an earthing fault that affects other components. After completing and finding a fault with a vehicle, always look back, you will sometimes find overlooked or assumed information cost a lot more time than asking the right questions!
    Clear all assumptions - If a vehicle refuses to start, and the fuel gauge shows full, don't assume it is! One short circuited wire could send you on a long journey looking in the wrong area.
    Read the fault codes - Always remember when trying to find a fault with a car, to ask it! Many people use diagnostics incorrectly, and sometimes even the diagnostic systems are to blame reporting miss-named faults. Start by performing a full scan, noting down all the recorded errors, then erasing them. Fault codes are held on Non Volatile EEPROMS which will not clear themselves unless instructed to do so. Some codes might be the remnants of long since cured problems. Now re-scan the vehicle and see if any codes have returned. This will point to a current active fault. Next, take the vehicle on a Drive cycle, a relatively quick test drive that will cover most aspects and driving conditions. This may trigger a condition based fault. Some diagnostic systems are able to record Freeze Frame data, which may help pinpoint the conditions that caused a fault. If it is an intermittent fault, and not currently present, it can sometimes be better to wait until the fault re-occurs, and re-check for codes. Obviously, in some cases this may not be possible (think intermittent loss of power in an aircraft, asking the owner to call you next time it falls out of the sky isn't an option!)
    Understand the codes! - A fault reported by a device is not the same as a fault with the device. One of the most common examples of this is receiving a Lambda-high code, and the first thing done is a new lambda sensor. This is a modern equivalent of shooting the messenger! Always try to verify a sensor is faulty before replacing it. This does sound very basic, but if I sold all Lambda sensors that were changed as a result of an airleak in a different area, I'd be a very rich man!
    Back to Basics - Never get too caught up with the high tech world. Remember to check the simple things, fuses, wiring plugs etc. For a petrol engine for example, check the Holy Trinity; Fuel, Air and Ignition, and not just the presence, but the timing of this. You may need to start checking all sensors manually with a Multimeter or Oscilloscope. Signal generators can produce artificial readings but remember, a good signal needs a good sensor AND good conditions.
     
     

  8.  
    #6
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    bmelyas12's Car Details
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    Hello mate welcome to the forum.
     
     

  9.  
    #7
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    Mattlock's Car Details
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    Wow, friendly lot on here, thanks for the feedback
     
     

  10.  
    #8
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    Mattlock's Car Details
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    By the way lovely car RJB
     
     

  11.  
    #9
    J0N
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    Hi Matt. Are you a car thief, per chance?
     
     

  12.  
    #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by J0N View Post
    Hi Matt. Are you a car thief, per chance?
    hahahahaha yeah I was wondering that .. I like BM's too, if anyone's got any advice on quick easy ways to get in without the alarms going off, I'd really appreciate any help you can offer lol
    323i se, manual 4door '98 (6 pot 2.5)

    Things that need sorting out:
    ==================
    New springs all round
    New shocks at front
    New wishbones
    Handbrake binding / not working properly
    Airbag warning light on
    Throttle Valve actuator fault
    Gearstick top keeps coming off
    Saggy glovebox door
     
     

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