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  1. 1999 E46 328ci remap? 
    #21
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    T328bak's Car Details
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    Year of Manufacture:
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    That is some really interesting information, i guess im going to look into getting the manifold, there is definetly a big difference between the 328 and 330, mainly because 328 is still the e36 engine. But if i can boost the torque ill have a lot more response on the throttle.
     
     

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    #22
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    Table of Contents
    ENGINES
    Subject Page
    M52TU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
    Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
    Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
    Technical Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
    Crankcase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
    Crankshaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
    Pistons and Connecting Rods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
    Flywheel and Self Adjusting Clutch (SAC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
    Oil Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    Valve Train/VANOS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    VANOS Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    Double Vanos Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
    Cylinder Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
    Cooling System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Map Cooling Thermostat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
    Resonance/Turbulence Intake System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    Idle Control Valve and Turbulence Bores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
    Exhaust Manifolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    Subject Page
    M54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
    Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
    Mechanical Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
    Technical Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
    Review Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
    M52TU B25 AND B28 ENGINES
    Model: E46, 323i and 328i
    Production Date: M52TU B28: 6/98-6/00 M52TU B25: 6/98-9/00
    3
    Engines
    Objectives
    After completing this module you should be able to:
    • List the changes made to the M52TU from the previous M52 engine.
    • Describe the advantages offered by the use of Double Vanos valve control.
    • Understand the Mechanical, Hydraulic and Electronic controls used in Double
    Vanos operation.
    • Explain the cooling system of the M52TU.
    • Describe the operation and advantages of the Turbulence Intake System.
    4
    Engines
    Introduction
    The M52 TU (Technically Updated) engine, is a further development of the M52 engine used
    in E36 and E39 vehicles. It is available in two displacement versions, the 2.8 liter and the
    2.5 liter.
    The development objectives were to reduce the fuel consumption and emission levels,
    while increasing the power output and performance characteristics of the previous M52.
    The engine management system, Siemens MS42.0, was developed, in conjunction with the
    mechanical changes, to provide the needed electronic control to allow the engine to comply
    with the Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards.
    During development, particular importance was given to improving quality, engine acoustics
    and comfort. Further development criteria was placed on increasing power
    achieved by an improved torque curve.
    5
    Engines
    Overview
    The following changes were made to the M52 engine to achieve the development goals:
    • Re-designed crankcase
    • Modified crankshaft
    • Modified pistons
    • Oil pump/oil pressure regulator integrated into the oil sump deflector
    • Double VANOS for the camshaft drive
    • Re-designed cooling system
    • Map controlled thermostat
    • Quick disconnect hoses for cooling system
    • Motor driven throttle valve
    • Catalytic converters mounted in the exhaust manifold
    6
    Engines
    TECHNICAL DATA
    7
    Engines
    8
    Engines
    Crankcase
    The crankcase of the M52 TU engine is a new design. It is made from the same aluminum
    alloy as the crankcase for the Z3 Roadster 2.8 liter M52 engine.
    • The aluminum crankcase
    is 51lbs lighter
    than the cast iron block
    of the M52.
    • The engine has cast
    iron liners as the M52
    engine in the Z3.
    • There is the possibility
    for boring the cylinders
    once (+.25mm).
    Crankshaft
    The crankshaft of the 2.5 liter displacement engine is made from cast iron. The 2.8 liter
    engine uses a forged steel crankshaft due to the “higher torque”. Both crankshafts are
    mass balanced. The crankshafts feature seven main bearings with the thrust bearing located
    at the #6 main journal area.
    9
    Engines
    Pistons and Connecting Rods
    The piston design is carried over from the M52 engine. The 2.8 liter uses a graphite coating
    on the skirts to reduce friction and noise characteristics. The connecting rods are forged
    steel.
    The SAC is designed to extend the service life of
    the clutch disc while keeping the pivot range of the
    diaphragm spring consistent throughout its service
    life.
    To check the clutch disc thickness the clutch must
    be removed. The pressure plate of the SAC configuration
    incorporates an additional “wedge” ring
    that rotates as the disc wears. As the ring rotates
    (1/2” total rotation distance) its wedges push the
    pressure plate disc forward to compensate for the
    wear of the clutch disc.
    When a SAC pressure plate is removed it must be
    reset to the “new” position before installing it into
    the vehicle. Using a new special tool, the wedge
    ring (1) is rotated back under the pressure of the
    spring (2) to the “new” reference line on the pressure
    plate.
    CAUTION: A replacement pressure plate is
    received with a shipping “star lock”. This is to be
    removed after installation. SAC service and
    replacement procedures are different and require
    new special tools. Refer to the repair manual in TIS
    for complete procedures.
    10
    Engines
    Flywheel and Self Adjusting Clutch (SAC)
    The M52 TU uses the dual mass flywheel with the self adjusting clutch introduced on the
    E39.
    11
    Engines
    Oil Pump
    The duocentric oil pump with oil pressure regulator for the M52 TU engine is integrated into
    the oil deflector in the sump.
    12
    Engines
    VANOS
    The double VANOS system is used on the M52 TU engine. Double VANOS was originally
    introduced on the European M3 engine, however, the system for the M52 TU engine is
    designed specifically for series production engines.
    The single VANOS system of the M52 engine is a simple ON/OFF system. With the double
    VANOS system, true variable timing for both the intake and exhaust camshafts is possible.
    In addition to offering increased power, the double VANOS system offers the following
    advantages:
    • Increase torque in the lower and medium RPM ranges - without a loss of power in the
    upper RPM ranges
    • Less un-burned gas when idling due to less camshaft overlap
    • Improved idling characteristics due to less overlap
    • Internal exhaust gas recirculation in the part load range for lower NOx emissions
    • Quicker warm up cycle for the catalytic converter for faster reduction in emissions
    • Improved fuel economy
    13
    Engines
    VANOS Components
    The VANOS system consists of the following components:
    • Intake and Exhaust camshafts with helical gear inserts
    • Adjustable camshaft drive gears
    • Double VANOS actuator
    • 2 - three way solenoid valves
    • Two camshaft trigger wheels
    • Two camshaft position sensors
    Engine oil pressure is used to position the VANOS actuators. The oil pressure is fed from
    the pump up to the three way solenoids and drains back to the sump as the camshafts are
    adjusted during engine operation.
    With the double VANOS system, the camshafts are infinitely adjustable within the mechanical
    travel limits of the cam drive gears.
    KL 15
    KL 15
    MS42.0
    SOLENOID
    OIL TEMP.
    SENSOR
    TWO POSITION PISTON HOUSING
    WITH INTERNAL/EXTERNAL
    HELICAL GEAR CUP
    TWO POSITION PISTON
    HOUSING WITH
    INTERNAL/EXTERNAL
    HELICAL GEAR CUP
    ENGINE
    OIL SUPPLY
    VENT
    VENT
    SOLENOID
    SENSOR
    SENSOR
    MS42.0
    ECM
    MS42.0
    ECM
    14
    Engines
    Double VANOS Operation
    The MS42.0 engine control module (ECM) controls the operation of the Double VANOS system.
    The base setting of the camshafts with the engine off:
    • Intake cam - retarded
    • Exhaust cam - advanced
    This is also the "fail safe" position in the event of an electronic control failure. Both
    camshafts are held in these positions by oil pressure from the engine oil pump. The exhaust
    camshaft is held additionally by a spring in the VANOS actuator.
    When the engine is started, the camshafts will remain in these positions until the ECM
    detects the positions of the camshafts from the camshaft sensors (approximately 50 revolutions
    or 2- 5 seconds).
    Once the cam positions are recognized, the ECM will make an initial cam timing adjustment
    based on RPM and throttle position. Following this initial setting, the intake air and engine
    coolant temperature are used to adjust the timing.
    When the ECM detects that the cams are in the desired position, the solenoids are modulated
    (100 - 220 Hz) maintaining oil pressure on both sides of the actuators to maintain the
    camshaft timing.
    15
    Engines
    Cylinder Head
    The cylinder head has been redesigned in the area of the cooling passages. The coolant
    circulation through the head has been optimized, allowing the head to operate at cooler
    temperatures.
    The front of the cylinder head has been redesigned for the double VANOS system.
    The air intake ports have been redesigned in conjunction with the redesigned intake manifold.
    Coolant Passage
    (casting)
    Exhaust
    Intake
    Turbulence
    M a n i f o l d
    Port
    Secondary Air
    Porting
    16
    Engines
    Cooling System
    The cooling system of the M52 TU engine has been completely redesigned. The objective
    in redesigning the system was to optimize the operating temperatures in both cylinder head
    and block. The cooling system is designed to:
    • Reduce the operating temperatures of the cylinder head. This has a positive effect on
    torque because the lower temperatures improve the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
    • Increase the operating temperature of the cylinder block (crankcase). This design change
    reduces the friction and thereby reduces fuel consumption.
    17
    Engines
    Map Cooling Thermostat
    As a further measure for controlling the
    engine's operating temperature, the
    heated thermostat, introduced on the
    M62 engine, is carried over to the M52
    TU engine. The heated thermostat
    allows the engine to be operated at
    higher controlled temperatures during
    low and part throttle conditions which
    reduces the fuel consumption of the
    engine.
    The thermostat heating which opens
    or closed the thermostat to control the
    engine temperature is controlled by the
    DME. Any problems will be diagnosed
    as part of the DME system using the
    DIS or MoDiC.
    These two changes were achieved in the M52 TU by having the coolant flow directly to the
    cylinder head from the water pump. The system is referred to as a partial engine cooling
    concept (MTK).
    The coolant is fed by the water pump through a cast coolant feed passage in the cylinder
    head to the rear of the cylinder head. From there it flows forward to the thermostat housing,
    radiator and output to the controlled inlet of the heater core.
    The water passages in the cylinder block are only connected to the coolant supply and
    metered through the holes in the head gasket. A reduced volume of the coolant flows
    through the cylinder block.
    18
    Engines
    Resonance/Turbulence Intake System
    The intake manifold for the M52 TU engine was completely redesigned. Manufactured from
    molded plastic, it contained several new innovations and features.
    Resonance Charging
    The principle of resonance charging is carried over from the M42 engine. The design of the
    manifold and the use of the resonance charging flap allow the manifold to operate with the
    dynamic effect of long intake runners at low to mid range RPM. Then, when the resonance
    flap opens during higher RPM, the dynamic effect is to have six short intake runners for
    greater air volume.
    The overall effect is to achieve an optimum torque progression throughout the entire RPM
    range.
    The resonance system consists of:
    • The intake manifold
    • Resonance manifold and tubes
    • Main manifold with six ram tubes
    • The resonance flap and controls
    • Vacuum actuator and vacuum reservoir
    • Turbulence manifold and idle control valve
    MDK
    HFM
    MAGNETIC
    VALVE
    VACUUM
    UNIT
    MS-42
    RESONANCE
    FLAP
    RAM TUBE
    MAIN MAINIFOLD
    RESONANCE TUBE
    IDLE AIR CONTROL VALVE
    (ZWD)
    RESONANCE MANIFOLD
    CRANKCASE VENTILATION
    TURBULENCE MANIFOLD
    TURBULENCE BORE 0:5.5mm
    19
    Engines
    Idle Control Valve and Turbulence Bores
    The intake manifold incorporates six separate (internal) turbulence bores that channel the
    idle and low engine speed air directly into the cylinder head. The turbulence bores mate up
    to matching 5.5mm bores in the cylinder head.
    INLET
    TURBULENCE
    IDLE AIR
    CONTROL VALVE
    MDK
    INT. EGR
    CATALYST
    CLOSE TO
    ENGINE
    SECONDARY
    AIR
    INJECTION
    (AIR FILTER)
    OUTLET-VANOS
    (228/80-105)
    INLET-VANOS
    (228/80-120)
    20
    Engines
    Exhaust Manifolds
    The exhaust manifolds incorporate the catalytic converters. Mounting the catalytic
    converters close to the engine allows them to come up to operating temperature quicker.
    The two pre and two post catalytic oxygen sensors are also mounted in the exhaust
    manifold.
    PRE-CATALYST SENSORS
    POST-CATALYST
    SENSORS
    21
    Engines
    M54 B25 AND B30 ENGINES
    Model: E46, 325i and 330i
    Production Date: M54 B30: From 6/00 M54 B25: From 9/00
    Objectives
    After completing this module you should be able to:
    • Identify the changes to the M54 engines over the M52 TU engine.
    • List the design objectives for the M54 engine.
    Introduction
    The M54 - 6 cylinder engine was introduced with the 2001 Model Year E46 330i. The displacement
    of the new engine is 3 liters and the engine replaced the 2.8 liter engine in the
    E46 in 6/2000. A 2.5 liter version of the M54 engine was introduced starting with 9/2000
    production in the E46, Z3 and E39 vehicles.
    The M54 - 3 liter displacement engine meets ULEV compliancy for emission standards. The
    2.5 liter version of the M54 engine is LEV compliant.
    Design objectives for the M54 engine were to provide:
    • Lower Emissions
    • Maintain Fuel Economy
    • Maintain Power and Performance levels
    22
    Engines
    M54B30 M54B25
    HORSE POWER 231@5900RPM 192@6000RPM
    TORQUE 300Nm@3500RPM 245Nm@3500RPM
    BORE 84mm 84mm
    STROKE 89.6mm 75mm
    COMPRESSION 10.2:1 10.5:1
    23
    Engines
    Mechanical Changes
    In addition to the increased displacement of the M54B30 engine, several mechanical
    changes were incorporated into the engine for reduced emissions and increased fuel economy.
    These changes include:
    • NEW PISTONS - The pistons have a shorter skirt compared to the M52TU and
    continue with the graphite coating for friction and emission reducing measures. The
    piston rings have been modified to reduce friction.
    • CRANKSHAFT - The crankshaft for the 3 liter M54 is adopted from the S52B32 -
    M3 engine. The crankshaft for the 2.5 liter is carried over from M52TU.
    • CAMSHAFT - The camshaft for the 3 liter M54 is modified with more lift (9.7 mm)
    and new valve springs to accommodate the increased lift. The camshaft of the 2.5
    liter M54 is carried over from the M52TU engine.
    • INTAKE MANIFOLD - The intake manifold is modified with shorter ram tubes (20mm
    shorter on 3 liter/10mm shorter on 2.5 liter). The diameter of the tubes is increased
    slightly.
    • INJECTION VALVES - The diameter of the injection pintle has increased slightly for
    the increased displacement of the 3 liter engine. The injectors for the 2.5 liter engine
    carry over from the M52TU.
    24
    Engines
    Non-return Fuel Rail system
    The M54 engine with MS 43.0 control uses the non return fuel rail system introduced on
    the M62 TU engine. The system meets running loss compliance without the use of the 3/2-
    way (running losses) solenoid valve used on the M52TU engine.
    The regulated fuel supply is controlled by
    the fuel pressure regulator integrated in
    the fuel filter. The fuel return line is also
    located on the filter.
    The M54 engine uses an Electronic
    Controlled Throttle Valve (EDK) for intake
    air control. The idle control valve and turbulence
    function of the intake manifold
    carries over from the M52TU engine.
    25
    Engines
    M54B30 ENGINE
    231
    26
    Engines
    M54B25 ENGINE
    27
    Engines
    Review Questions
    1. What position are the camshafts in when the engine is first started? What advantages
    does this position make possible?
    2. How much mechanical movement does the Vanos assembly provide?
    3. Why is it advantages to maintain a warm crankcase but continue to keep the
    cylinder head cool? What is the purpose of the transmission heat exchanger?
    4. What effect is caused by the turbulence bores in the combustion chamber?
    5. How does the M52TU/M54 achieve EGR without using a separate valve?
    6. Why are the Catalytic Converters mounted so close to the engine?
    7. What change was made to the fuel delivery system of the M54?
     
     

  4.  
    #23
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    vauxfan's Car Details
    Model of Car:
    325 sport
    Year of Manufacture:
    2002
    Transmission Type:
    automatic
    Car Body Type:
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    Quote Originally Posted by T328bak View Post
    That is some really interesting information, i guess im going to look into getting the manifold, there is definetly a big difference between the 328 and 330, mainly because 328 is still the e36 engine. But if i can boost the torque ill have a lot more response on the throttle.
    yes and no!
     
     

  5. 1999 E46 328ci remap? 
    #24
    Bimmer Fan
    Car Details
    T328bak's Car Details
    Model of Car:
    328
    Year of Manufacture:
    1999
    Transmission Type:
    Automatic
    Car Body Type:
    Coupe

    Join Date
    Feb 2011
    Location
    UK
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    Please explain which part i got wrong. But allthe information you provided is very interesting.
     
     

  6.  
    #25
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    TheEnd's Car Details
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    540
    Year of Manufacture:
    1998
    Transmission Type:
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    The M52tu has double vanos, and a different intake manifold, and an electronic throttle
     
     

  7.  
    #26
    BMW Guru
    Car Details
    vauxfan's Car Details
    Model of Car:
    325 sport
    Year of Manufacture:
    2002
    Transmission Type:
    automatic
    Car Body Type:
    loon
    vauxfan's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by T328bak View Post
    Please explain which part i got wrong. But allthe information you provided is very interesting.
    its sort of the e36 engine, but with all these changes
    The following changes were made to the M52 engine to achieve the development goals:
    • Re-designed crankcase
    • Modified crankshaft
    • Modified pistons
    • Oil pump/oil pressure regulator integrated into the oil sump deflector
    • Double VANOS for the camshaft drive
    • Re-designed cooling system
    • Map controlled thermostat
    • Quick disconnect hoses for cooling system
    • Motor driven throttle valve
    • Catalytic converters mounted in the exhaust manifold
     
     

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